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Testing Immediate Inferences for Validity with the Square of Opposition

Consider each of the immediate inferences below. State which square of opposition relation is used, and whether the inference is valid or invalid. “F:” will be used to abbreviate “It is false that.”

Choose two answers

1 / 15

F: some A are R. Thus some A are not R.

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2 / 15

No Y are S. Thus F: all Y are S.

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3 / 15

Some X are N. Thus F: all X are N.

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4 / 15

F: no H are Q. Thus F: some H are not Q.

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5 / 15

F: no J are A. Thus F: some J are A.

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6 / 15

No C are Y. Thus all C are Y.

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7 / 15

All A are T. Thus F: no A are T.

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8 / 15

Some S are not U. Thus no S are U.

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9 / 15

F: some N are M. Thus F: all N are M.

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10 / 15

F: some H are F. Thus no H are F.

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11 / 15

F: some P are not I. Thus some P are I.

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12 / 15

Some K are T. Thus some K are not T.

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13 / 15

All J are E. Thus F: some J are E.

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14 / 15

No W are S. Thus some W are not S.

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15 / 15

All A are B. Thus F: some A are not B.

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