An Online Resource for Logic Teachers and Students of Logic

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Necessary and Contingent Statements

Consider the following statements. In each case, is the statement necessarily true, necessarily false, contingently true, or contingently false?

1 / 15

A Maya dialect is the official language of Nigeria.

2 / 15

Columbia has beautiful beaches that attract tourists.

3 / 15

All bachelors are married men.

4 / 15

Two plus two equals four.

5 / 15

Tokyo has a human population of over 10,000.

6 / 15

Apples are fruit and it is false that apples are fruit.

7 / 15

Either apples are fruit or it is false that apples are fruit.

8 / 15

There are no rivers in India.

9 / 15

French women are commonly seen in Paris.

10 / 15

Unicorns are commonly seen in New York City.

11 / 15

Squares have five sides.

12 / 15

It is false that elephants can fly.

13 / 15

Squares have four sides or elephants can fly.

14 / 15

Elephants can fly.

15 / 15

Squares have four sides.

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