An Online Resource for Logic Teachers and Students of Logic

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Equivalence

Consider the following pairs of statements. In each case, are the sentences logically equivalent?

1 / 10

Some Chileans are philosophers. Some philosophers are Chileans.

2 / 10

Melody is holding a total of three coins in her right hand. Melody is holding an odd number of coins in her right hand.

3 / 10

Martha Nussbaum is a female and she’s a philosopher. Martha Nussbaum is a female philosopher.

4 / 10

Carvaka philosophers tended to be atheists. Carvaka philosophers tended to not believe in the existence of God.

5 / 10

The Indian tradition of Samkhya is metaphysically dualist. The Indian tradition of Samkhya affirms the existence of two distinct kinds of substance.

6 / 10

All dogs are organic beings. No dogs are inorganic beings.

7 / 10

Some dogs are not black animals. Some black animals are not dogs.

8 / 10

Xunzi was a male Chinese philosopher. Xunzi was a Chinese philosopher.

9 / 10

No ancient Jain philosophers are 21st century logicians. No 21st century logicians are ancient Jain philosophers.

10 / 10

Plato wrote more books than Socrates. Socrates wrote fewer books than Plato.

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