Resources - Basic Concepts of Logic

Compiled with the assistance of David Sanders

INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC

Oxford University:
http://logic.philosophy.ox.ac.uk/

Carnegie-Mellon University:
http://oli.web.cmu.edu/openlearning/forstudents/freecourses/logic

ON THE NATURE OF AN ARGUMENT

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
http://www.iep.utm.edu/argument/

Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument

CREATING A GOOD ARGUMENT

Creating a good argument is not an easy thing to do; it is usually hard work and is almost always an intellectually challenging task. For good advice:
http://www.roanestate.edu/owl/argument.html

http://homeworktips.about.com/od/essaywriting/a/argument.htm

HTTP://WWW.UNC.EDU/DEPTS/WCWEB/HANDOUTS/ARGUMENT.HTML

EXAMPLES OF NONARGUMENTS:

The ability to distinguish arguments from nonarguments is an important logical skill. For examples of nonarguments:
http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Nonargument

DEDUCTION AND INDUCTION:

The difference between deduction and induction is one of the most fundamental ideas in all of logical theory.

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
http://www.iep.utm.edu/ded-ind/

Other:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deductive_reasoning

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_reasoning

DEDUCTIVE VALIDITY

Beginning students of logic often have difficulty understanding the concept of validity. For most students it is one of the hardest of all the elementary concepts of logic.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logical-consequence/

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
http://www.iep.utm.edu/val-snd/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Validity

http://www.iep.utm.edu/logcon/

Syllogism generator

Professor Jose Gomez, Ph.D., sent us a link to a wonderful Syllogism Generator (in Spanish) that he created for his students at the Universidad Panamericana in Mexico City. Runs on Windows only. Posted with his permission:
Syllogism Generator
English Instructions in PDF

INDUCTIVE STRENGTH

For most people the notion of inductive strength is also difficult to grasp at first.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-inductive/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Induction_(philosophy)

http://www.unravelingtheword.info/LogicalDebate/LogicalDebate04.htm

BRAIN TEASERS

Test your deductive reasoning skills with brain teasers.

On the famous Knights and Knaves problems created by logician Raymond Smullyan:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knights_and_Knaves

An automated Knights and Knaves puzzle Generator: Create 382 Knights and Knaves Problems!
http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/logic/knight.php

Other:
http://weblog.raganwald.com/2008/05/few-easy-ones-from-raymond-smullyan.html

http://www.logic-puzzles.org/

http://www.freepuzzles.com

http://brainden.com/logic-puzzles.htm

http://www.misronet.com/puzzles01.htm

http://www.cut-the-knot.org/LewisCarroll/LCGame.shtml

THE ART OF DEFINING WORDS

If we do not define our key terms when we reason, our reasoning can become completely sidetracked. This is why constructing good definitions is an important logical skill.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definition

http://www.sfu.ca/~swartz/definitions.htm

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/definitions/

HTTP://WWW.MERRIAM-WEBSTER.COM/

LOGICAL FALLACIES

A fallacy is an error in reasoning. The ability to recognize a fallacy when one is presented is also an important logical skill.

Stephen Downe’s Guide to the Fallacies:
http://www.onegoodmove.org/fallacy/toc.htm

Richard Paul and Linda Elder’s Guide to Critical Thinking
http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Concepts_Tools.pdf

Gary Curtis’s wonderful site:
http://fallacyfiles.org/aboutgnc.html

Others:
http://www.skepticsfieldguide.net/2005/01/fallacy-list.html

http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/

http://www.logicalfallacies.info/

http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html

http://www.iep.utm.edu/fallacy/

FORMAL LOGIC

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formal_logic

http://neo-philosophy.com/LogicWeek8.html

INFORMAL LOGIC

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Informal_logic

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-informal/

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